Mild-hybrid (48 volts)
More and more cars are mild-hybrid. In this case, the standard starter motor and alternator has been replaced by an integrated starter/generator. This starter/generator recovers the energy normally lost during braking and deceleration and stores that energy in a compact 48-volt lithium-ion battery. The starter/generator can support the combustion engine during acceleration. The starter/generator also supplies the power for the electrical systems in the car. The technology was created to reduce a car's CO2 emissions and slightly lower fuel consumption.
A hybrid uses a two-piece powertrain. This means that the car is equipped with both a petrol or diesel engine and an electric motor. A hybrid has a small battery that is charged while driving, for example by a dynamo. During the rollout, the car recovers energy. The energy obtained is used to temporarily support the combustion engine or to provide electrical systems in the car with power. A hybrid comes into its own especially in city centers due to the frequent braking.
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)
PHEV stands for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Popularly, we talk more about a plug-in hybrid or plug-in hybrid. In principle, the powertrain of a plug-in hybrid is the same as that of a hybrid, only a PHEV has a much larger battery to be able to drive longer distances electrically. A PHEV must always be charged with a plug in order to realize the maximum consumption benefit. The advantage of a PHEV is that the vehicle can drive locally emission-free in city centers.
In a battery-electric car, the combustion engine has disappeared. The car is fully electric and has one or more electric motors. The energy for the electric motor comes from the battery pack, which can be charged via charging stations or a normal socket.
FCEV stands for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle. Or in normal Dutch: a hydrogen-electric car. In this case there is also an electric car, only the electric motor does not get its power from a large battery pack, but the power is generated en route in a fuel cell. In that fuel cell, hydrogen is converted into electricity via an electrochemical process using oxygen from the outside air. That energy is used to revive the electric motor to drive the wheels. A hydrogen car also contains a compact battery. This battery is for regenerative braking.
Some cars have a range extender. This is simply a combustion engine, which means that a car with a range extender is not fully electric. The wheels of cars with a range extender are driven directly by the electric motor and not by the combustion engine. The combustion engine primarily drives a generator that supplies power to the electric motor. The generator, in turn, can recharge the batteries.